No data, text, facts, ideas, or theories belonging to others presented as if they were the author's own ("plagiarism") are accepted. Proper acknowledgements of other’s works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for copyrighted material.
The journal uses Turnitin software to screen plagiarism. No more than 25% similarity with proper references is tolerated. If there is a suspicion of plagiarism, the journal will carry out an investigation. If, after investigation, the allegation seems to raise valid concerns, the accused author will be contacted and allowed to address it. If misconduct has been established beyond a reasonable doubt, the submitted article will be rejected and returned to the author. If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or, in severe cases, the complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked "retracted," and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article. The author’s institution may be informed.